First Nations people know that a tribe must have control over its resources and sustain its identity as a distinct civilization for economic development to make sense. With an integrated approach to tribal societies that defines development as a means to the end of sustaining tribal character, Dean Howard Smith offers both conceptual and practical tools for making self-determination and self-sufficiency a reality for Native American Nations. Through a century of changes in federal policy, tribal development has typically been viewed through mainstream society's goals and system, or according to some pan-Indian framework. Instead, Smith argues that any development prospectus must be created and evaluated within the dictums of the individual indigenous social structure. Otherwise, a tribe must choose between cultural integrity and economic development. Smith draws from his extensive experience as a consultant, teacher, and instructor to offer a wide variety of detailed case studies, and readers will learn from both successful and failed development initiatives. While focused on the United States, his work will be applicable for indigenous peoples in many parts of the world. In addition to tribal employees and communities, Modern Tribal Development will be important reading for scholars and students in Native American studies, development studies, community planning, and cross-cultural studies.