In this book, we look at the fundamental biology of the human cell from the outside in. While genes and mutations define our cells and how they function, this volume focuses on the biology of the cell rather than on the nuts and bolts of molecular biology. As a result, the book focuses primarily on protein function in normal and diseased states. The volume reveals how cells are constructed and how they are organized so they work effectively. In each case this understanding is related back to what is known about how mutations and foreign agents lead to many common diseases and ailments. The goal is to develop a holistic view of the normal human cell to set the stage for an understanding of its primary importance in disease and human existence. More to the point, with the development of exciting new technologies, cells are the new frontier in the fight against disease. This book will set the stage for understanding why this is true. This book is written in an easy to read style with lots of relevant examples. It is designed to meet the needs of students world-wide who want an accurate, informative and inexpensive book on the structure and function of the human cell. The book is suitable for use as a course textbook or as supplementary reading to help students understand how cells function. Anyone who has taken a biology course will also find this book an enjoyable read, allowing them to update their understanding of current biomedical issues that make the news.